We present primal-dual coding, a photography technique that enables direct fine-grain control over which light paths contribute to a photo. We achieve this by projecting a sequence of patterns onto the scene while the sensor is exposed to light. At the same time, a second sequence of patterns, derived from the first and applied in lockstep, modulates the light received at individual sensor pixels. We show that photography in this regime is equivalent to a matrix probing operation in which the elements of the scene's transport matrix are individually re-scaled and then mapped to the photo. This makes it possible to directly acquire photos in which specific light transport paths have been blocked, attenuated or enhanced.
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